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Aviation Optical & Medical Limited

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Medical risk assessment for physical interventions

Completing training as a Police Use of Force Instructor (1998)

I was awarded my PhD by the University of Birmingham for work on developing body armour for the police. This arose from my development work for the Home Office and the Police Federation on officer safety programmes, addressing protection from knives and bullets. 


In 1998, I qualified as a police instructor for unarmed defensive tactics, safe prisoner restraint, handcuffing, tactical communication skills, incapacitant sprays and knife defence. 

Since then I have been able to work with mental health, acute health, secure children's homes, custodial and other services to minimise the risks of physical intervention and restraint. 

Through this interest, I have been able to offer opinions on use of force, and injuries sustained during restraint, arrest and detention. I continue to provide expert advice to a number of national bodies and organisations on the safety of physical interventions. I am engaged in developing safe physical interventions and effective training strategies across a number of agencies including the prison service, the police, mental and acute health, secure hospitals and secure children’s homes. I have also been able to assess the safety of restraint devices, physical intervention packages, behaviour management plans and individual care plans.

I serve as a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee on the Medical Implications of Less-Lethal Weapons (SACMILL) for the Ministry of Defense.

I have joined with other (non-medical) experts to provide comprehensive, multi-discciplinary reviews and support for all organisations in which force and behaviour management may be required.